Course Category: Biochemistry

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The Chemistry of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates (also called saccharides) are molecular compounds made from just three elements: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Monosaccharides (e.g. glucose) and disaccharides (e.g. sucrose) are relatively small molecules. They are often called sugars. Other carbohydrate molecules are very large (polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose). Carbohydrates are: a source of energy for…

Triacylglycerol Metabolism

Triacylglycerides possess a glycerol backbone, derived from either glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate produced in glycolysis. Esterified to the glycerol backbone are three fatty acid chains, which consist of nonpolar hydrocarbon tails that vary in their length as well as the degree of saturation. Triacylglycerol occurs in human metabolism in two roles, namely (a)as…

Cholesterol Metabolism

Cholesterol metabolism in humans is complex. Cholesterol is either supplied from the diet (exogenous) or synthesized de novo by many cells of the body (endogenous). The major factors in the diet that may increase the blood cholesterol level are high intakes of cholesterol itself, or of saturated fats and excessive calories. The liver is one of the major…

Basic Knowledge of RNA

Ribonucleic acid, or RNA is one of the three major biological macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life (along with DNA and proteins). A central tenet of molecular biology states that the flow of genetic information in a cell is from DNA through RNA to proteins: “DNA makes RNA makes protein”. Proteins are…

Lipid Metabolism , Steroids and Bile Acid

Lipid metabolism is the synthesis and degradation of lipids in cells, involving the breakdown or storage of fats for energy and the synthesis of structural and functional lipids, such as those involved in the construction of cell membranes. In animals, these fats are obtained from food or are synthesized by the liver. Free…

Analytical Techniques of Biotechnology

Biotechnology is an emerging field that allows scientists to use analytical techniques to study the structure and function of biomolecules. Protein purification is an all but mandatory step for studying macromolecules, but this task is not necessarily easy. Several experimental methods, deductive logic, and even a little bit of…

Bioseparations Engineering

Bioseparations engineering refers to the systematic study of the scientific and engineering principles utilized for large-scale purification of biological products: biopharmaceuticals, biochemicals, foods, nutraceuticals and diagnostic reagents. Bioseparations engineering, both as an academic topic as well as an industrial practice has undergone significant growth and increase in importance in the…

Gene Expression Transcription and Translation

Transcription and translation convert a gene into protein. During this process, the genetic information of a gene, the DNA, is converted into RNA so that protein may be realized later on. This course by Academy Europe will provide you with exam-related information regarding this process, thus preparing you ideally for…

Amino Acids and Proteins

In the human organism, proteins undertake multiple and vital functions. Structural proteins are found in each and every cellular compartment. Intracellularly, motor proteins power the energy-dependent transportation of vesicles. Signal proteins receive and transmit information. Transport and storage proteins bind, for example, oxygen, and carry it to a location where…