- Instructor: Mark Thomasson
- Lectures: 7
- Students: 1302
- Duration: 10 weeks
Metabolic regulation is the physiological mechanism by which the body takes in nutrients and delivers energy as required. Metabolic regulation works ultimately at a molecular level, mainly by modulation of enzyme activities that function together as a whole system to sense the balance of energy coming in and energy required. The different organs in the body have their own characteristic patterns of metabolism according to their functions in the body. Thus, it is critical that metabolic pathways interact in a dynamic sense, in the entire organism. Furthermore, the endocrine and nervous systems need to precisely coordinate to control the flow of energy within the body.
Much of the metabolic regulation is governed by hormones that are delivered through the bloodstream and act through specific cellular receptors. Both the cell-surface receptors (that usually bind peptide hormones) and the nuclear receptors (that bind thyroid hormones, steroid hormones, and other membrane-permeant ligands) play critical roles in metabolic regulation. Hormones acting through cell-surface receptors are involved in rapid metabolic adjustments. These receptors signal via the small molecule cyclic adenosine 3,5-monophosphate (cyclic AMP or cAMP) and the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5) trisphosphate. Following this, the activities of downstream metabolic enzymes are regulated by covalent modification, especially phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, and/or translocation of enzymes within the cell. Activation of the nuclear receptors by their ligands, on the other hand, directly controls the transcription of metabolic genes and leads to long-term metabolic regulation.
Studies carried out with several different families of receptors have pointed out that β-arrestins determine the specificity, spatiality, and temporality of cellular signals as well as the intracellular movement of receptors and other signal complexes.1–4 Binding of β-arrestins to ligand-bound G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) physically uncouples the G protein from the receptor and effectively terminates G protein-mediated signaling. By coupling to a ligand-activated receptor, β-arrestins also initiate GPCR signaling in a G protein-independent manner. Furthermore, β-arrestins scaffold diverse signal complexes, thereby linking activated receptors with distinct sets of accessory and effector proteins. Considering the intricate metabolic regulatory network composed of a variety of hormones and their specific receptors, it should not be a surprise that proper functioning of β-arrestins is indispensable for the body’s metabolic function. This chapter summarizes the function of β-arrestins in metabolic regulation and also discusses their association with metabolic syndromes including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and obesity.
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The medical course by Academy Europe aims at imparting quality education and training to students to help contribute to the growing sector of health and medicine.
Different institutes have different cut off marks, however, the selection is made on the basis of the entrance exams conducted either on the national level or by individual institutes.
After completing this medical course on Academy Europe , students will get self improvement in capacities of a practicing doctor, general physician, surgeon, medical officer, dietician, lecturer, nursing etc.
Before you start proceeding with this course, we are assuming that you have a good aptitude and can think logically. You should want to help patients and want to try something different.
Students who have a keen interest in learning the basics of the Medical Sciences, its workings and also the diagnosis of human bodies, should opt for this course. This course has a structure which develops a person’s psyche towards the feelings of service and ailment of the sufferers of various diseases. The students, after doing this course, also become an active participant in the community as they are always ready to help the ones in need through their medical practices.
Any student who wishes to have a career in the medical field, be it a surgeon, a medical director, a specialist like a gynecologist or an anesthetist, etc. should consider this as the best field of study because this gives an introduction to all the discourses in detail.
The Syllabus on Medical Education
Pre-Clinical >> Anatomy, Bio-Chemistry, and Physiology: Basic knowledge to understand the various structures in the body; the molecular organization of the cell; and the functioning of the organs in the body.
Para-Clinical >> Community Medicine, Forensic Medicine, Pathology, Pharmacology, Microbiology, Clinical postings inwards and OPDs: Awareness of the medico-legal and medical practices involved in crimes; understanding of the infectious diseases; understanding the concepts of cell injury and body’s capacity of healing; understanding the principles of pharmacology involved in the use of drugs.
Clinical >> Community Medicine, Medicine and allied subjects (Psychiatry, Dermatology) Obst., Gynae, Pediatrics Surgery and allied subjects (anesthesiology, ENT, Ophthalmology, Orthopedics) and clinical postings: Understanding the use of anesthesia; to encourage the student to work effectively as a community physician, diagnose and manage common skin diseases; acquire skills for a general practitioner; understanding the common problems of the eye, the musculoskeletal system, ear, nose and throat problems and the development of children, etc.
Job Profiles for Medical Education
Candidates who wish to work can opt for any of the below-mentioned job profiles:
Doctor: Doctors are responsible for performing health tests, running diagnosis, treating patients and prescribing medicines to them.
Private Practitioner: Private practitioners provide private services to their patients related to health, mental issues, and many other things.
Public Health Specialist: They analyze and develop programs to improve the health of people. PHSs find opportunities in government as well as private sectors.
Pharmacist: A pharmacist owns a pharmacy and interprets a doctor’s prescription. A pharmacist also detects therapeutic incompatibilities.
Lab Executive: Lab Executive is responsible to maintains medical laboratory equipment and tools, performance through establishing a quality standard; troubleshooting procedures, quality, developing an operation, certifying instrument performance, ensuring staff compliance arranging equipment and tools replacements, repair and service.
Medical Transcriptionist: Medical Transcriptionist is responsible for listening to the recorded matters of a physician or any other healthcare experts. Interpret and transcribe the oral work into diagnostic test result, referral letters, operative reports and other documents.
Medical Examiner: Medical Examiner is responsible for specialized training in forensic pathology. They also perform inspect organs and autopsies organs, tissue, and bodily liquids to examine the reason for death.
Clinical Manager: Clinical Manager is in charge for managing clinical, administrative, professional, and clerical staff; overseeing the recruitment, development, managing day-to-day management; and appraisal of staff; developing and implementing rules and regulations and directives; attending meetings and setting and monitoring budgets.
Medical Officer: The job profile focuses on providing medical care to the employees who get ill at work.
General Physician: The general physician treats the patients on a very primary level.
Healthcare Research and Consultant: The consultant has the job of business analysis and management consultancy.
Surgeon: The surgeon’s job is to perform surgery. It is a specialized job.
Medical Superintendent: A medical superintendent is supposed to supervise the workings in a medical organization.
Dietician: The job of a dietician or a nutritionist includes preparing diet charts for the patients and keeping a track of the same.
Physiotherapist: To help patients suffering from difficulties with physical movement resulting from illness, injury, disability, or aging. To improve their movement, and devise and review treatment programs using manual therapy (such as massage), therapeutic exercise, and electrotherapy.
Lecturer: To teach at undergraduate and graduate levels in areas allocated and reviewed from time to time by the Head of Department.
Researcher: They work with other team members to identify project goals, research methods, and other test parameters. Researchers also offer recommendations on improving the techniques used.
Osteopath: They treat patients by stimulating different areas of the body using a wide range of physical techniques such as touching, stretching, and massaging. The aim of these techniques is to increase the blood flow to the different parts of the body and facilitate obstructed movement.
Consultant: They provide services directly to doctors or healthcare facilities, working for organizations, providing medical-consulting services.
R&D Lab Technicians: (R&D) lab technicians are responsible to work in a research facility setting, leading tests to guarantee that items are being tried effectively. They are responsible for gathering information, keeping precise records, and ensuring records are documented effectively.
Technical executives: Technical executives are in charge to manage and coordinate every single specialized operation for an association.
Medical technicians: Medical technicians, additionally alluded to as restorative lab professionals are responsible to perform essential lab techniques, for example, testing examples and recording comes about. These people may have some expertise in a field, for example, atomic science.
X-Ray Technician: X-Ray Technician is in charge of working the medicinal gear used to catch inside pictures of patients’ bodies.
Lab Technician: Lab Technician is responsible to work in labs. Lab Technician work in different settings which incorporate social insurance, industry, look into, and instructive establishments. Lab specialists may work in a wide assortment of fields, for example, solution, science, science, gadgets, geography and the earth.
Category Manager: A Retail Category Manager is an in-store in-charge of visually promoting, evaluating, administering, and offering a specific kind of therapies. Retail Category Managers manage the in-store merchandise.
Medical Representatives: Medical Representatives are the key thread of contact amongst pharmaceutical and restorative organizations and social insurance experts.
Nursing In-charge: Managing, communicating, supervising and assisting the subordinate staff in carrying out the administrative duties.
Nursing Assistant: Delivering their duties of patient care on daily basis, supervising over the workings of other staff, assisting in daily workings of the administration.
Mechanisms of Metabolic Regulation
Example of Metabolic Regulation